Ireland 1954 FDC Cardinal Thomas Newman - Founder of Catholic University of Ireland. Staehle Cacheted IllustratedFirst Day Cover, unaddressed - Date of Issue: Jul-19, 1954
Ireland 1954 FDC Cardinal Thomas Newman
Founder of Catholic University of Ireland
Staehle Cacheted IllustratedFirst Day Cover, unaddressed
Date of Issue
: Leo Whelan
1s 3p: 2,491,080
SC 153/4, SG 160/1, Mi 122/3, Yv124/5
J H Newman age 23 when he preached his first sermon (homily)
The Venerable John Henry Cardinal Newman ( February 21 , 1801 ? August 11 , 1890 ) was an English convert to Catholicism , later made a cardinal . In early life he was a major figure in the Oxford Movement to bring the Church of England back to its Catholic roots. Eventually his studies in history convinced him to become a Catholic. Both before and after his conversion he wrote a number of influential books, including Via Media, Essay on the Development of Christian Doctrine, Apologia Pro Vita Sua, and the Grammar of Assent.Family
John Henry Newman was born in London, the eldest son of John Newman, banker, of the firm of Ramsbottom, Newman and Co. The Newman family was understood to be of Dutch extraction, and the name itself, spelt 'Newmann' in an earlier generation, further suggests Hebrew (Jewish) origin. His mother, Jemima Fourdrinier, was of a Huguenot family, long established in London as engravers and paper manufacturers. John Henry was the eldest of six children. The second son, Charles Robert, a man of ability but of impracticable temper, a professed atheist and a recluse, died in 1884. The youngest son, Francis William, was for many years professor of Latin in University College, London. Two of the three daughters, Harriett Elizabeth and Jemima Charlotte, married brothers, Thomas and John Mozley; and Anne Mozley, a daughter of the latter, edited in 1892 Newman’s Anglican Life and Correspondence, having been entrusted by him in 1885 with an autobiography written in the third person to form the basis of a narrative of the first thirty years of his life. The third daughter, Mary Sophia, died unmarried in 1828.Education
At the age of seven Newman was sent to a private school conducted by Dr. Nicholas at Ealing, where he was distinguished by diligence and good conduct, as also by a certain shyness and aloofness, taking no part in the school games. He speaks of himself as having been 'very superstitious' in these early years. He took great delight in reading the Bible, and also the novels of Walter Scott, then in course of publication. Later, he read some skeptical works by Paine, Hume, and perhaps Voltaire, and was for a time influenced by them. At the age of fifteen, during his last year at school, he was converted, an incident of which he wrote in his Apologia that it was 'more certain than that I have hands or feet.' It was in the autumn of 1816 that he thus 'fell under the influence of a definite creed,' and received into his intellect 'impressions of dogma, which, through God's mercy, have never been effaced or obscured' (Apologia, part 3).
The tone of his mind was at this date evangelical and Calvinistic, and he held that the pope was Antichrist. Matriculating at Trinity College, Oxford on December 4, 1816, he went into residence there in June the following year, and in 1818 he gained a scholarship of ?0, tenable for nine years. But for this he would have been unable to remain at the university, as in 1819 his father’s bank suspended payment. In that year his name was entered at Lincoln's Inn. Anxiety to do well in the final schools produced the opposite result; he broke down in the examination, and so graduated with third-class honours in 1821. Desiring to remain in Oxford, he took private pupils and read for a fellowship at Oriel, then 'the acknowledged centre of Oxford intellectualism.' To his intense relief and delight he was elected on April 12, 1822. Edward Bouverie Pusey was elected a fellow of the same society in 1823.Anglican priest
On Trinity Sunday, June 13, 1824, Newman was ordained, and ten days later he preached his first sermon at Over Worton Church, Oxfordshire when on a visit to his former teacher Rev. Walter Mayers. He became, at Pusey’s suggestion, curate of St Clement’s, Oxford. Here for two years he was busily engaged in parochial work, but he found time to write articles on Apollonius of Tyana, on Cicero and on Miracles for the Encyclopaedia Metropolitana. In 1825, at Richard Whately's request, he became vice-principal of St Alban's Hall, but this post he held for one year only. To his association with Whately at this time he attributed much of his 'mental improvement' and a partial conquest of his shyness. He assisted Whately in his popular work on logic, and from him he gained his first definite idea of the Christian Church. He broke with him in 1827 on the occasion of the re-election of Robert Peel for the University, Newman opposing this on personal grounds. In 1826 he became tutor of Oriel, and the same year Richard Hurrell Froude, described by Newman as 'one of the acutest, cleverest and deepest men' he ever met, was elected fellow. The two formed a high ideal of the tutorial office as clerical and pastoral rather than secular. In 1827 he was a preacher at Whitehall.The Oxford Movement
The year following, Newman supported and secured the election of Hawkins as provost of Oriel in preference to John Keble, a choice which he later defended or apologized for as having in effect produced the Oxford Movement with all its consequences. In the same year he was appointed vicar of St Mary’s, to which the chapelry of Littlemore was attached, and Pusey was made regius professor of Hebrew.
At this date, though still nominally associated with the Evangelicals, Newman’s views were gradually assuming a higher ecclesiastical tone, and while local secretary of the Church Missionary Society he circulated an anonymous letter suggesting a method by which Churchmen might practically oust Nonconformists from all control of the society. This resulted in his being dismissed from the post, March 8 , 1830 ; and three months later he withdrew from the Bible Society , thus completing his severance from the Low Church party. In 1831?832 he was select preacher before the University. In 1832 , his difference with Hawkins as to the 'substantially religious nature' of a college tutorship becoming acute, he resigned that post.Mediterranean travels
In December he went with Hurrell Froude, on account of the latter's health, for a tour in South Europe. On board the mail steamship Hermes they visited Gibraltar, Malta and the Ionian Islands, and subsequently Sicily, Naples and Rome, where Newman made the acquaintance of Nicholas Wiseman. In a letter home he described Rome as 'the most wonderful place on earth,' but the Roman Catholic religion as 'polytheistic, degrading and idolatrous.' It was during the course of this tour that he wrote most of the short poems which a year later were printed in the Lyra Apostolica. From Rome Newman returned to Sicily alone, and was dangerously ill with fever at Leonforte, recovering from it with the conviction that he had a work to do in England. In June 1833 he left Palermo for Marseille in an orange boat, which was becalmed in the Strait of Bonifacio, and here he wrote the verses, 'Lead, kindly Light', which later became popular as a hymn.The Tracts for the Times
He was at home again in Oxford on the July 9 and on the 14th Keble preached at St Mary’s an assize sermon on 'National Apostasy,' which Newman afterwards regarded as the inauguration of the Oxford Movement. In the words of Richard William Church, it was 'Keble who inspired, Froude who gave the impetus and Newman who took up the work'; but the first organization of it was due to H. J. Rose, editor of the British Magazine, who has been styled 'the Cambridge originator of the Oxford Movement.' It was in his rectory house at Hadleigh, Suffolk, that a meeting of High Church clergymen was held, 25th to 26th of July (Newman was not present), at which it was resolved to fight for 'the apostolical succession and the integrity of the Prayer-Book.'
A few weeks later Newman started, apparently on his own initiative, the Tracts for the Times, from which the movement was subsequently named 'Tractarian.' Its aim was to secure for the Church of England a definite basis of doctrine and discipline, in case either of disestablishment or of a determination of High Churchmen to quit the establishment, an eventuality that was thought not impossible in view of the state's recent high-handed dealings with the sister established Church of Ireland. The teaching of the tracts was supplemented by Newman's Sunday afternoon sermons at St Mary's, the influence of which, especially over the junior members of the university, was increasingly marked during a period of eight years. In 1835 Pusey joined the movement, which, so far as concerned ritual observances, was later called 'Puseyite'; and in 1836 its supporters secured further coherence by their united opposition to the appointment of Hampden as regius professor of divinity. His Bampton Lectures (in the preparation of which Blanco White had assisted him) were suspected of heresy, and this suspicion was accentuated by a pamphlet put forth by Newman, Elucidations of Dr Hampden's Theological Statements.
At this date Newman became editor of the British Critic, and he also gave courses of lectures in a side-chapel of St Mary's in defence of the via media ('middle way') of the Anglican Church as between Catholicism and popular Protestantism.
His influence in Oxford was supreme about the year 1839, when, however, his study of the monophysite heresy first raised in his mind a doubt as to whether the Anglican position was really tenable on those principles of ecclesiastical authority which he had accepted. This doubt returned when he read, in Wiseman's article in the Dublin Review on 'The Anglican Claim,' the words of Augustine of Hippo against the Donatists, 'securus judicat orbis terrarum' ('the verdict of the world is conclusive'), words which suggested a simpler authoritative rule than that of the teaching of antiquity. He said of his reaction,
- For a mere sentence, the words of St. Augustine, struck me with a power which I never had felt from any words before ..... they were like the 'Tolle, lege, ?Tolle, lege,' of the child, which converted St Augustine himself. 'Securus judicat orbis terrarum!' By those great words of the ancient Father, interpreting and summing up the long and varied course of ecclesiastical history, the theology of the Via Media was absolutely pulverised. (Apologia, part 5)
He continued his work, however, as a High Anglican controversialist until he had published, in 1841, Tract 90, the last of the series, in which be put forth, as a kind of proof charge, to test the tenability of all Catholic doctrine within the Church of England, a detailed examination of the 39 Articles, suggesting that their negations were not directed against the authorized creed of Roman Catholics, but only against popular errors and exaggerations.
This theory, though not altogether new, aroused much indignation in Oxford, and Archibald Campbell Tait (afterwards archbishop of Canterbury), with three other senior tutors, denounced it as 'suggesting and opening a way by which men might violate their solemn engagements to the university.' The alarm was shared by the heads of houses and by others in authority; and, at the request of the bishop of Oxford, the publication of the Tracts came to an end.Last years as an Anglican
At this date Newman also resigned the editorship of the British Critic, and was thenceforth, as he himself later described it, 'on his deathbed as regards membership with the Anglican Church.' He now recognized that the position of Anglicans was similar to that of the semi-Arians in the Arian controversy; and the arrangement made at this time that an Anglican